Force of habit
Stress hormones switch off areas of the brain for goal-directed behaviour
RUB publication: Combination of two stress hormones is responsible
Two stress hormones in use
In order to test the different stress hormones, the cognition psychologists used three substances - a placebo, the stress hormone hydrocortisone and yohimbine, which ensures that the stress hormone noradrenaline stays active longer. Part of the volunteers received hydrocortisone alone or just yohimbine, others both substances. A fourth group were administered a placebo. Altogether, the data of 69 volunteers was included in the study.
Goal-directed behaviour and habits investigated in the experiment
In the experiment, all participants - both male and female - learned that they would receive cocoa or orange juice as a reward if they chose certain symbols on the computer. After this learning phase, volunteers were allowed to eat as many oranges or as much chocolate pudding as they liked. “That weakens the value of the reward”, explained Schwabe. “Whoever eats chocolate pudding will lose the attraction to cocoa. Whoever is satiated with oranges, has less appetite for orange juice.” In this context, goal-directed behaviour means: Whoever has previously eaten the chocolate pudding, chooses the symbols leading to cocoa reward less frequently. Whoever is satiated with oranges, selects less frequently the symbols associated with orange juice. Based on previous results, the scientists assumed that only the combination of yohimbine and hydrocortisone attenuates goal-directed behaviour. They have now confirmed this hypothesis.
Combined effect of yohimbine and hydrocortisone
As expected, volunteers who took yohimbine and hydrocortisone did not behave goal-directed but according to habit. In other words, satiation with oranges or chocolate pudding had no effect. Persons who had taken a placebo or only one medication, on the other hand, behaved goal-directed and showed a satiating effect. The brain data revealed: The combination of yohimbine and hydrocortisone reduced the activity in the forebrain – in the so-called orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex. These areas have been already previously associated with goal-directed behaviour. The brain regions which are important for habitual learning, on the other hand, were similarly active for all volunteers.
L. Schwabe, M. Tegenthoff, O. Höffken, O.Wolf (2012): Simultaneous glucocorticoid and Noradrenergic activity disrupts the neural basis of goal-directed action in the human brain, Journal of Neuroscience, doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1304-12.2012